The Project Gutenberg EBook of Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes
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Author: Thomas Hobbes
Release Date: May, 2002 [EBook #3207] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on July 2, 2002]
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START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, LEVIATHAN
Edward White^M 3657 Winn Road^M Courtenay^M British Columbia^M Canada V9J 1N8^M ^M (250) 337 2068^M ^M firstname.lastname@example.org^M
Notes on the E-Text. This E-text was prepared from the Pelican Classics edition of Leviathan, which in turn was prepared from the first edition. I have tried to follow as closely as possible the original, and to give the flavour of the text that Hobbes himself proof-read, but the following differences were unavoidable.
Hobbes used capitals and italics very extensively, for emphasis, for proper names, for quotations, and sometimes, it seems, just because.
The original has very extensive margin notes, which are used to show where he introduces the definitions of words and concepts, to give in short the subject that a paragraph or section is dealing with, and to give references to his quotations, largely but not exclusively biblical. To some degree, these margin notes seem to have been intended to serve in place of an index, the original having none. They are all in italics.
He also used italics for words in other languages than English, and there are a number of Greek words, in the Greek alphabet, in the text.
To deal with these within the limits of plain vanilla ASCII, I have done the following in this E-text.
I have restricted my use of full capitalization to those places where Hobbes used it, except in the chapter headings, which I have fully capitalized, where Hobbes used a mixture of full capitalization and italics.
Where it is clear that the italics are to indicate the text is quoting, I have introduced quotation marks. Within quotation marks I have retained the capitalization that Hobbes used.
Where italics seem to be used for emphasis, or for proper names, or just because, I have capitalized the initial letter of the words. This has the disadvantage that they are not then distinguished from those that Hobbes capitalized in plain text, but the extent of his italics would make the text very ugly if I was to use an underscore or slash.
Where the margin notes are either to introduce the paragraph subject, or to show where he introduces word definitions, I have included them as headers to the paragraph, again with all words having initial capitals, and on a shortened line.
For margin references to quotes, I have included them in the text, in brackets immediately next to the quotation. Where Hobbes included references in the main text, I have left them as he put them, except to change his square brackets to round.
For the Greek alphabet, I have simply substituted the nearest ordinary letters that I can, and I have used initial capitals for foreign language words.
Neither Thomas Hobbes nor his typesetters seem to have had many inhibitions about spelling and punctuation. I have tried to reproduce both exactly, with the exception of the introduction of quotation marks.
In preparing the text, I have found that it has much more meaning if I read it with sub-vocalization, or aloud, rather than trying to read silently. Hobbes' use of emphasis and his eccentric punctuation and construction seem then to work.
Edward White email@example.com Canada Day 2002
1651 LEVIATHAN by Thomas Hobbes LEVIATHAN OR THE MATTER, FORME, & POWER OF A COMMON-WEALTH ECCLESIASTICAL AND CIVILL
By Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury.
Printed for Andrew Crooke, at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1651.
TO MY MOST HONOR'D FRIEND Mr. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN of GODOLPHIN
Your most worthy Brother Mr SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, when he lived, was pleas'd to think my studies something, and otherwise to oblige me, as you know, with reall testimonies of his good opinion, great in themselves, and the greater for the worthinesse of his person. For there is not any vertue that disposeth a man, either to the service of God, or to the service of his Country, to Civill Society, or private Friendship, that did not manifestly appear in his conversation, not as acquired by necessity, or affected upon occasion, but inhaerent, and shining in a generous constitution of his nature. Therefore in honour and gratitude to him, and with devotion to your selfe, I humbly Dedicate unto you this my discourse of Common-wealth. I know not how the world will receive it, nor how it may reflect on those that shall seem to favour it. For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, 'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded. But yet, me thinks, the endeavour to advance the Civill Power, should not be by the Civill Power condemned; nor private men, by reprehending it, declare they think that Power too great. Besides, I speak not of the men, but (in the Abstract) of the Seat of Power, (like to those simple and unpartiall creatures in the Roman Capitol, that with their noyse defended those within it, not because they were they, but there) offending none, I think, but those without, or such within (if there be any such) as favour them. That which perhaps may most offend, are certain Texts of Holy Scripture, alledged by me to other purpose than ordinarily they use to be by others. But I have done it with due submission, and also (in order to my Subject) necessarily; for they are the Outworks of the Enemy, from whence they impugne the Civill Power. If notwithstanding this, you find my labour generally decryed, you may be pleased to excuse your selfe, and say that I am a man that love my own opinions, and think all true I say, that I honoured your Brother, and honour you, and have presum'd on that, to assume the Title (without your knowledge) of being, as I am,
Your most humble, and most obedient servant, Thomas Hobbes.
Paris APRILL 15/25 1651.
THE CONTENTS OF THE CHAPTERS
THE FIRST PART
1. OF SENSE
2. OF IMAGINATION
3. OF THE CONSEQUENCES OR TRAIN OF IMAGINATIONS
4. OF SPEECH
5. OF REASON AND SCIENCE
6. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS, COMMONLY CALLED THE PASSIONS; AND THE SPEECHES BY WHICH THEY ARE EXPRESSED
7. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE
8. OF THE VERTUES, COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUALL, AND THEIR CONTRARY DEFECTS
9. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE
10. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR, AND WORTHINESSE
11.OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS
12. OF RELIGION
13. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND AS CONCERNING THEIR FELICITY AND MISERY
14. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACT
15. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE
16. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATED
THE SECOND PART
17. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
18. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTION
19. OF SEVERALL KINDS OF COMMON-WEALTH BY INSTITUTION; AND OF SUCCESION TO THE SOVERAIGN POWER
20. OF DOMINION PATERNALL, AND DESPOTICALL
21. OF THE LIBERTY OF SUBJECTS
22. OF SYSTEMES SUBJECT, POLITICALL, AND PRIVATE
23. OF THE PUBLIQUE MINISTERS OF SOVERAIGN POWER
24. OF THE NUTRITION, AND PROCREATION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
25. OF COUNSELL
26. OF CIVILL LAWES
27. OF CRIMES, EXCUSES, AND EXTENUATIONS
28. OF PUNISHMENTS, AND REWARDS
29. OF THOSE THINGS THAT WEAKEN, OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
30. OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVERAIGN REPRESENTATIVE
31. OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD BY NATURE
THE THIRD PART
OF A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH
32. OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRISTIAN POLITIQUES
33. OF THE NUMBER, ANTIQUITY, SCOPE, AUTHORITY, AND INTERPRETERS OF THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE.
34. OF THE SIGNIFICATION, OF SPIRIT, ANGELL, AND INSPIRATION IN THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE
35. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, OF HOLY, SACRED, AND SACRAMENT
36. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETS
37. OF MIRACLES, AND THEIR USE
38. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF ETERNALL LIFE, HEL, SALVATION, THE WORLD TO COME, AND REDEMPTION
39. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE WORD CHURCH
40. OF THE RIGHTS OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, IN ABRAHAM, MOSES, THE HIGH PRIESTS, AND THE KINGS OF JUDAH
41. OF THE OFFICE OF OUR BLESSED SAVIOUR
42. OF POWER ECCLESIASTICALL
43. OF WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR MANS RECEPTION INTO THE KINGDOME OF HEAVEN
THE FOURTH PART
OF THE KINGDOME OF DARKNESSE
44. OF SPIRITUALL DARKNESSE FROM MISINTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE
45. OF DAEMONOLOGY, AND OTHER RELIQUES OF THE RELIGION OF THE GENTILES
46. OF DARKNESSE FROM VAINE PHILOSOPHY, AND FABULOUS TRADITIONS
47. OF THE BENEFIT PROCEEDING FROM SUCH DARKNESSE; AND TO WHOM IT ACCREWETH
48. A REVIEW AND CONCLUSION
Nature (the art whereby God hath made and governes the world) is by the art of man, as in many other things, so in this also imitated, that it can make an Artificial Animal. For seeing life is but a motion of Limbs, the begining whereof is in some principall part within; why may we not say, that all Automata (Engines that move themselves by springs and wheeles as doth a watch) have an artificiall life? For what is the Heart, but a Spring; and the Nerves, but so many Strings; and the Joynts, but so many Wheeles, giving motion to the whole Body, such as was intended by the Artificer? Art goes yet further, imitating that Rationall and most excellent worke of Nature, Man. For by Art is created that great LEVIATHAN called a COMMON-WEALTH, or STATE, (in latine CIVITAS) which is but an Artificiall Man; though of greater stature and strength than the Naturall, for whose protection and defence it was intended; and in which, the Soveraignty is an Artificiall Soul, as giving life and motion to the whole body; The Magistrates, and other Officers of Judicature and Execution, artificiall Joynts; Reward and Punishment (by which fastned to the seat of the Soveraignty, every joynt and member is moved to performe his duty) are the Nerves, that do the same in the Body Naturall; The Wealth and Riches of all the particular members, are the Strength; Salus Populi (the Peoples Safety) its Businesse; Counsellors, by whom all things needfull for it to know, are suggested unto it, are the Memory; Equity and Lawes, an artificiall Reason and Will; Concord, Health; Sedition, Sicknesse; and Civill War, Death. Lastly, the Pacts and Covenants, by which the parts of this Body Politique were at first made, set together, and united, resemble that Fiat, or the Let Us Make Man, pronounced by God in the Creation.
To describe the Nature of this Artificiall man, I will consider
First the Matter thereof, and the Artificer; both which is Man.
Secondly, How, and by what Covenants it is made; what are the Rights and just Power or Authority of a Soveraigne; and what it is that Preserveth and Dissolveth it.
Thirdly, what is a Christian Common-Wealth.
Lastly, what is the Kingdome of Darkness.
Concerning the first, there is a saying much usurped of late, That Wisedome is acquired, not by reading of Books, but of Men. Consequently whereunto, those persons, that for the most part can give no other proof of being wise, take great delight to shew what they think they have read in men, by uncharitable censures of one another behind their backs. But there is another saying not of late understood, by which they might learn truly to read one another, if they would take the pains; and that is, Nosce Teipsum, Read Thy Self: which was not meant, as it is now used, to countenance, either the barbarous state of men in power, towards their inferiors; or to encourage men of low degree, to a sawcie behaviour towards their betters; But to teach us, that for the similitude of the thoughts, and Passions of one man, to the thoughts, and Passions of another, whosoever looketh into himselfe, and considereth what he doth, when he does Think, Opine, Reason, Hope, Feare, &c, and upon what grounds; he shall thereby read and know, what are the thoughts, and Passions of all other men, upon the like occasions. I say the similitude of Passions, which are the same in all men, Desire, Feare, Hope, &c; not the similitude or The Objects of the Passions, which are the things Desired, Feared, Hoped, &c: for these the constitution individuall, and particular education do so vary, and they are so easie to be kept from our knowledge, that the characters of mans heart, blotted and confounded as they are, with dissembling, lying, counterfeiting, and erroneous doctrines, are legible onely to him that searcheth hearts. And though by mens actions wee do discover their designee sometimes; yet to do it without comparing them with our own, and distinguishing all circumstances, by which the case may come to be altered, is to decypher without a key, and be for the most part deceived, by too much trust, or by too much diffidence; as he that reads, is himselfe a good or evill man.
But let one man read another by his actions never so perfectly, it serves him onely with his acquaintance, which are but few. He that is to govern a whole Nation, must read in himselfe, not this, or that particular man; but Man-kind; which though it be hard to do, harder than to learn any Language, or Science; yet, when I shall have set down my own reading orderly, and perspicuously, the pains left another, will be onely to consider, if he also find not the same in himselfe. For this kind of Doctrine, admitteth no other Demonstration.