Leviathan

Thomas Hobbes

Chapter 9 - Of The Severall Subjects Of Knowledge


There are of KNOWLEDGE two kinds; whereof one is Knowledge Of Fact: the other Knowledge Of The Consequence Of One Affirmation To Another. The former is nothing else, but Sense and Memory, and is Absolute Knowledge; as when we see a Fact doing, or remember it done: And this is the Knowledge required in a Witnesse. The later is called Science; and is Conditionall; as when we know, that, If The Figure Showne Be A Circle, Then Any Straight Line Through The Centre Shall Divide It Into Two Equall Parts. And this is the Knowledge required in a Philosopher; that is to say, of him that pretends to Reasoning.

The Register of Knowledge Of Fact is called History. Whereof there be two sorts: one called Naturall History; which is the History of such Facts, or Effects of Nature, as have no Dependance on Mans Will; Such as are the Histories of Metals, Plants, Animals, Regions, and the like. The other, is Civill History; which is the History of the Voluntary Actions of men in Common-wealths.

The Registers of Science, are such Books as contain the Demonstrations of Consequences of one Affirmation, to another; and are commonly called Books of Philosophy; whereof the sorts are many, according to the diversity of the Matter; And may be divided in such manner as I have divided them in the following Table.

I. Science, that is, Knowledge of Consequences; which is called also PHILOSOPHY

A. Consequences from Accidents of Bodies Naturall; which is
called NATURALL PHILOSOPHY
1. Consequences from the Accidents common to all Bodies Naturall;
which are Quantity, and Motion.
a. Consequences from Quantity, and Motion Indeterminate;
which, being the Principles or first foundation of
Philosophy, is called Philosophia Prima
PHILOSOPHIA PRIMA
b. Consequences from Motion, and Quantity Determined
1) Consequences from Quantity, and Motion Determined
a) By Figure, By Number
1] Mathematiques,
GEOMETRY
ARITHMETIQUE
2) Consequences from the Motion, and Quantity of Bodies in
Speciall
a) Consequences from the Motion, and Quantity of the
great parts of the World, as the Earth and Stars,
1] Cosmography
ASTRONOMY
GEOGRAPHY
b) Consequences from the Motion of Speciall kinds, and
Figures of Body,
1] Mechaniques, Doctrine of Weight
Science of
ENGINEERS
ARCHITECTURE
NAVIGATION
2. PHYSIQUES, or Consequences from Qualities
a. Consequences from the Qualities of Bodies Transient, such
as sometimes appear, sometimes vanish
METEOROLOGY
b. Consequences from the Qualities of Bodies Permanent
1) Consequences from the Qualities of the Starres
a) Consequences from the Light of the Starres. Out of
this, and the Motion of the Sunne, is made the
Science of
SCIOGRAPHY
b) Consequences from the Influence of the Starres,
ASTROLOGY
2) Consequences of the Qualities from Liquid Bodies that
fill the space between the Starres; such as are the
Ayre, or substance aetherial.
3) Consequences from Qualities of Bodies Terrestrial
a) Consequences from parts of the Earth that are
without Sense,

1] Consequences from Qualities of Minerals, as Stones, Metals, &c . 2] Consequences from the Qualities of Vegetables

b) Consequences from Qualities of Animals
1] Consequences from Qualities of Animals in
Generall
a] Consequences from Vision,
OPTIQUES
b] Consequences from Sounds,
MUSIQUE
c] Consequences from the rest of the senses
2] Consequences from Qualities of Men in Speciall
a] Consequences from Passions of Men,
ETHIQUES
b] Consequences from Speech,
i) In Magnifying, Vilifying, etc.
POETRY
ii) In Persuading,
RHETORIQUE
iii) In Reasoning,
LOGIQUE
iv) In Contracting,
The Science of
JUST and UNJUST
B. Consequences from the Accidents of Politique Bodies; which is
called POLITIQUES, and CIVILL PHILOSOPHY
1. Of Consequences from the Institution of COMMON-WEALTHS, to
the Rights, and Duties of the Body Politique, or Soveraign.
2. Of Consequences from the same, to the Duty and Right of
the Subjects.